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Chemical Composition : Al2O3 + Fe,Ti,Cr [Aluminum Oxide]
Hardness : 9.0
Specific Gravity (Density) : 3.99 – 4.10 (g/cm3)
Refractive Index : 1.760 – 1.772 Uniaxial ( – )
Sapphire is one of the top four in popularity of gems; Diamond, Sapphire, Ruby and Emerald. This is mostly due to its beauty, variety of colors and toughness as a jewelry gem. It is typically thought of as being a blue gem, but it is available in many other colors including blue-green, green, violet, purple, orange, yellow, golden, peachy pink, pink, colorless, and black. Ruby is the red or pinkish red variety of Corundum. With a Moh’s hardness of 9.0 and no cleavage, it is a very durable gem for jewelry.
Sapphire is available from many locations around the world. Some of these locations, like Cambodia, Ceylon and Kashmir, are well known for their fine Sapphires.